The Distribution of Invasive Tilapia Throughout A Tropical Man-Made Lake With Special Reference to Temengor Reservoir, Malaysia
Keywords:Aquaculture, Escapee, Temengor Reservoir, Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE), Native fish
With a surface area of 15, 200 ha, the Temengor Reservoir, in the northwestern state of Perak was selected among other lakes in Malaysia for the development of a large tilapia aquaculture facility in 2008 due to its favourable environmental conditions. Tilapia has never been recorded at Temengor Reservoir prior to the establishment of this facility. However, preliminary observations in a previous study detected tilapia species in the natural waters of this lake, strongly suggesting these were escapees from the floating cages which had invaded the natural waters. Following that, a study was conducted to assess the distribution of these escapees throughout the Temengor Reservoir. The cultured tilapias are easily recognizable with elongated mouth and body, and long caudal fin. The sampling was conducted using gill nets. The distribution of the escaped tilapia throughout the Temengor Reservoir was mapped based on previous data and current data on the fish checklist conducted at different sampling points of this lake, and the occurrence (presence/absence) of escaped tilapia was recorded. A comparative analysis was conducted at several number of points among three sampling areas, according to the radii from the fish cage facility; <5km (S1), 5-15km (S2), and >15km (S3). The ANOVA showed significant differences (p<0.05) in Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) weight between the three sampling areas. As tilapia is a highly successful global invasive species, the presence of tilapia at these and other locations at Temengor Reservoir should be rigorously monitored. Complete eradication of tilapia in the lake is of high urgency. We recommend intensive targeted fishing of the species in the vicinity of the cages and biological control by native predators to preserve and conserve the native fish species at Temengor Reservoir.
Abdullah AR, Weng CN, & Som APM. 2011. The potentials and perils of ecotourism in Belum Temengor Forest Complex. World Applied Sciences Journal, 12(9), 1-9.
Adlan MA. 2009. Filet tilapia ke pasaran AS. Kosmo newspaper, 15 July 2009. Retrieved from http://ww1.kosmo.com.my/kosmo/content.asp
Ambak MA, Mansor MI, Mohd-Zaidi Z, & Mazlan AG. 2010. Fishes of Malaysia. Publisher Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. 344 pp.
Amilhat E, Lorenzen K, Morales EJ, Yakupitiyage A, & Little DC. 2009. Fisheries production in Southeast Asian farmer-managed aquatic systems (FMAS). I. Characterisation of systems. Aquaculture, 296(3-4), 219–226.
Amirrudin BA, & Zakaria-Ismail M. 2014. Additional native fish fauna of rivers and streams flowing into Temengor Reservoir, Perak, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal, 66(4): 407–419.
Anderson L. 2004. Genetically engineered fish – new threats to the environment. Publisher Greenpeace International. 20 pp.
Arbuckle JL. 2012. IBM SPSS Amos 21 user’s guide. IBM Corporation. Chicago.
Arthur RI, Lorenzen K, Homekingkeo P, Sidavong K, Sengvilaikham B, & Garaway CJ. 2010. Assessing impacts of introduced aquaculture species on native fish communities: Nile tilapia and major carps in SE Asian freshwaters. Aquaculture, 299, 81–88.
Aura CM, Mwarabu RL, Nyamweya CS, Owiti H, Ongore CO, Guya F, ... & Marriott A L. 2021. Exploring the potential of small water bodies as an integrative management tool for fisheries production. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 29 (3), 254–268.
Barry TP, Marwah A, & Marwah P. 2007. Stability of 17a-methyl testosterone in fish feed. Aquaculture, 271, 523–529.
Beatty SJ, & Morgan DL. 2013. Introduced freshwater fishes in a global endemic hotspot and implications of habitat and climatic change. BioInvasions Records, 2 (1), 1–9.
Britton JR. & Brazier M. 2006. Eradicating the invasive topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva, from a recreational ?shery in northern England. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 13, 329–335.
Britton JR, Gozlan RE, & Copp GH. 2011. Managing non-native fish in the environment. Fish and Fisheries, 12, 256–274.
Brown ML, & Austen DJ. 1996. Data management and statistical techniques. In: Murphy, B.R. & Willis, D.W. (Eds.), Fisheries techniques. (pp. 17-62). 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Canonico GC, Arthington A, Mccrary JK, & Thieme ML. 2005. The effects of introduced tilapias on native biodiversity. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 15, 463–483.
Copp GH, Wesley KJ, Verreycken H, & Russell IC. 2007. When an ‘invasive’ fish species fails to invade! Example of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva. Aquatic Invasions, 2, 107–112.
Costa-Pierce BA. 2003. Rapid evolution of an established feral population (Oreochromis spp.): the need to incorporate invasion science into regulatory structures. Biological Invasions, 5,71-84.
Crutch?eld JU. 1995. Establishment and expansion of redbelly tilapia and blue tilapia in a power plant cooling reservoir. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 15, 452–461.
de Moor FC, Wilkinson RC, & Herbst HM. 1986. Food and feeding habits of Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) in hypertrophic Hartbeesport Dam, South Africa. South African Journal of Zoology, 21, 170–176.
Eldredge LG. 2000. Non-indigenous freshwater fishes, amphibians, and crustaceans of the Pacific and Hawaiian Islands. In: Sherley, G. (Ed.), Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. (pp. 173-190). South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa.
El-Greisy ZA, & El-Gamal AE. 2012. Monosex production of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus using different doses of 17a-methyltestosterone with respect to the degree of sex stability after one year of treatment. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 38, 59–66.
Froese R, & Pauly D. 2016. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
Garcia-Berthou E. 2007. The characteristics of invasive fishes: What has been learned so far? Journal of Fish Biology, 71, 33-55.
Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). 2015. Species profile Oreochromis niloticus. Retrieved from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/-species.php?sc=1322
Gómez-Márquez JL, Peña-Mendoza B, del Carmen Alejo-Plata M, & Guzmán-Santiago JL. 2015. Culture mixed-sex and monosex of tilapia in ponds in Mexico City. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 187-194.
Gough J. 2011. Perak fish lands on US, Canada and European Tables. Cover Story. Ipoh Echo issue 126. Retrieved from http://www.ipohecho.com.my/v2/-2011/08/16-perak-fish-lands-on-us-canada-and-european-tables
Hamdan R, Othman A, & Kari F. 2015. Climate change effects on aquaculture production performance in Malaysia: an environmental performance analysis. International Journal of Business and Society, 16(3), 364 – 385.
Hamid MA, & Mansor M. 2013. The inland fisheries with special reference to Temengor and Bersia Reservoirs. Malaysian Applied Biology, 42(1): 73–76.
Hashim M. 2015. Industry and Market Status of Tilapia in Malaysia. 4th International Trade and Technical Conference and Exposition on Tilapia (Tilapia 2015). 2 - 4 April 2015, Palace of the Golden Horses. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Hashim ZH, Shah ASRM, Mohammad MS, Mansor M, & Sah SAM. 2012. Fishes of Sungai Enam and Sungai Telang in Temengor Reservoir, Perak, Malaysia. Checklist, 8(1), 27-31.
Hoffman P. 2002. Injurious wildlife species; Snakeheads (family Channidae). Agency: Fish and Wild Federal Register, Rules and Regulations, 67(193), 62193-62204.
Ibrahim J. 2016. Kajian ke atas spesies ikan natif dan asing: status penyebaran tilapia gift di Tasik Temengor, Perak, Malaysia. Konvensyen Penyelidikan Perikanan 2016. Fisheries Research Institute (FRI) Batu Maung, Penang, 27 October 2016.
Iinuma, M., Sharma, K.R., & Leung, P.S. 1999. Technical efficiency of carp pond culture in peninsula Malaysia: an application of stochastic production frontier and technical inefficiency model. Aquaculture, 175(3-4), 199–213
Iq KC, & Shu-Chien AC. 2011. Proteomics of buccal cavity mucus in female tilapia fish (Oreochromis spp.): a comparison between parental and non-parental fish. PLoS One, 6(4), e18555.
Jumatli A, & Ismail MS. 2021. Promotion of sustainable aquaculture in Malaysia. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Promotion of Sustainable Aquaculture, Aquatic Animal Health, and Resource Enhancement in Southeast Asia (pp. 31-40). Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
Kaviarasu M, Amin MHN, Rizal MR, & Shahfiz MA. 2013. Diversity and distribution of freshwater fish of Temengor Lake, West Malaysia. Proceeding of the 2nd Temengor Scientific Expedition 2012. Pulau Banding Resort, Gerik, Perak. 14 pp. Retrieved from Research Gate.
Knapp RA, & Matthews KR. 1998. Eradication of nonnative fish by gill-netting from a small mountain lake in California. Restoration Ecology, 6, 207–213.
Kour R, Bhatia K, & Sharma KK. 2014. Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as a successful biological invader in Jammu (J&K) and its impacts on native ecosystem. International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies, 1(10), 1-5.
Kozhara AV, Zhulidov AV, Gollasch S, Przybylski M, Poznyak VG, Zhulidov DA, & Gurtovaya TY. 2007. Range extension and conservation status of the bitterling, Rhodeus sericeus amarus in Russia and adjacent countries. Folia Zoologica, 56(1), 97–108.
Mair GC, & Little DC. 1991. Population control in farmed tilapias. NAGA, the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM), Quarterly, 14(3), 8-13.
Marr SM. 2008. Impacts of invasive fish on indigenous fish assemblages. In: Arderne, P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th yellow?sh working group conference, Jonkershoek. (pp. 24–36). 14–16 March 2008.
McKaye KR, Ryan JR, Stauffer JR, Lo´pez Pe´rez LJ, Vega GI, & van den Berghe EP. 1995. African tilapia in Lake Nicaragua: ecosystem in transition. BioScience, 45, 406–411.
Meyer A. 2015. The extraordinary evolution of Cichlid fishes. Scientific American, 312(4), 56-61.
Munshi DJS, & Hughes GM. 1992. Air breathing fishes of India. Their structure, function and life history. Balkema, Rotterdam, 10-96.
Nico L, Fuller P, & Neilson M. 2015. Oreochromis aureus. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, Florida. Retrieved from http://nas.er.usgs.gov//queries-/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=463
Njiru M, Waithaka E, Muchiri M, van Knaap M, & Cowx IG. 2005. Exotic introductions to the fishery of Lake Victoria: What are the management options? Lakes and reservoirs: Research and Management, 10, 147–155.
Ogutu-Ohwayo R. 1990. The decline of the native fishes of Lakes Victoria and Kyoga (East Africa) and the impact of introduced species, especially the Nile perch, Lates niloticus and the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 27, 81–96.
Peterson MS, Slack WT, & Woodley CM. 2005. The occurrence of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) in coastal Mississippi, USA: ties to aquaculture and thermal effluent. Wetlands, 25, 112–121.
Pullin RSV. 1983. Choice of tilapia species for aquaculture. In: Fishelson, L. & Yaron, Z. (Compilers). International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Nazareth, Israel, 8-13 May 1983. Tel Aviv University, Israel, 64-76.
Sato M, Kawaguchi Y, Nakajima J, Mukai T, Shimatani Y, & Onikura N. 2010. A review of the research on introduced freshwater ?shes: new perspectives, the need for research, and management implications. Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 6, 99–108.
Senanan W, & Bart AN. 2010. The potential risks from farm escaped tilapias. 15 pp. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.485.5661-&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
Shah ASRM, Mohammad MS, Zakeyuddin MS, Fadzil NFM, Aziz AAA, Hashim ZH, Zain KM. Him NAIIN, & Shariman Z. 2016a. Fish population at lentic zone, Royal Belum State Park, Perak, Malaysia: A preliminary finding. (pp. 183-188). Proceedings of the 4th Royal Belum Scientific Expedition 2015.
Shah ASRM, Hashim ZH, Mohammad MS, Mansor M, Huat KK, & Ali A. 2016b. Fishes of Temengor Reservoir: A checklist before and after dam operation. In: Mansor, M., Omar, W.M.W., Subehi, L., Hashim, Z.H. & Hamid, M.A. (Eds.), Lake ecosystem and services: Temengor Reservoir, Malaysia and selected Indonesian Lakes. (pp. 31-33). School of Biological Sciences, USM Pulau Pinang.
Tidwell JH, & Bright LA. 2018. Freshwater aquaculture. In: Brian Fath (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Ecology. (pp. 91-96). Elsevier, United Kingdom.
Wardah Nadhirah, I. 2016. Fish species composition caught by gill net of Temengor and Belum, Perak. BSc dissertation, Universiti Sains Malaysia. 63 pp.
WFC, World Fish Center. 2006. World fish center in Malaysia. Available online. 4 pp.
Yi Y, Diana JS, Shrestha MK, & Lin CK. 2004. Culture of mixed-sex Nile Tilapia with predatory snakehead. Nineteenth Annual Technical Report. Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 67-73.
Yusoff A. 2015. Status of resource management and aquaculture in Malaysia. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA). Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production of Aquatic Species, 53-65. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
Zafaralla MT. 1999. Southern tagalog studies: Development of aquatic ecosystem health and restoration strategies for stressed freshwater bodies, UP Los Baños, Philippines.
Zambrano L, Martínez-Meyer E, Menezes N, & Peterson AT. 2006. Invasive potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in American freshwater systems. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63(9), 1903-1910.
Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Limnology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.